# Plotting¶

## A-scans¶

### plot_Ascan.py¶

This module uses matplotlib to plot the time history for the electric and magnetic field components, and currents for all receivers in a model (each receiver gets a separate figure window). Usage (from the top-level gprMax directory) is:

```
python -m tools.plot_Ascan outputfile
```

where `outputfile`

is the name of output file including the path.

There are optional command line arguments:

`--outputs`

to specify a subset of the default output components (`Ex`

,`Ey`

,`Ez`

,`Hx`

,`Hy`

,`Hz`

,`Ix`

,`Iy`

or`Iz`

) to plot. By default all components are plotted.`-fft`

to plot the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a single output component

For example to plot the `Ez`

output component with it’s FFT:

```
python -m tools.plot_Ascan my_outputfile.out --outputs Ez -fft
```

## B-scans¶

### plot_Bscan.py¶

gprMax produces a separate output file for each trace (A-scan) in the B-scan. These must be combined into a single file using the `outputfiles_merge.py`

module (described in the other utilities section). This module uses matplotlib to plot an image of the B-scan. Usage (from the top-level gprMax directory) is:

```
python -m tools.plot_Bscan outputfile output
```

where:

`outputfile`

is the name of output file including the path`output`

is the name of output component (`Ex`

,`Ey`

,`Ez`

,`Hx`

,`Hy`

,`Hz`

,`Ix`

,`Iy`

or`Iz`

) to plot

## Antenna parameters¶

### plot_antenna_params.py¶

This module uses matplotlib to plot the input impedance (resistance and reactance) and s11 parameter from an antenna model fed using a transmission line. It also plots the time history of the incident and reflected voltages in the transmission line and their frequency spectra. Usage (from the top-level gprMax directory) is:

```
python -m tools.plot_antenna_params outputfile --tln transmissionlinenumber
```

where:

`outputfile`

is the name of output file including the path`--tln`

is the number of the transmission line (default is one). Transmission lines are numbered (starting at one) in the order they appear in the input file.

## Built-in waveforms¶

This section describes the definitions of the functions that are used to create the built-in waveforms, and how to plot them.

### plot_builtin_wave.py¶

This module uses matplotlib to plot one of the built-in waveforms and it’s FFT. Usage (from the top-level gprMax directory) is:

```
python -m tools.plot_builtin_wave type amp freq timewindow dt
```

where:

`type`

is the type of waveform, e.g. gaussian, ricker etc...`amp`

is the amplitude of the waveform`freq`

is the centre frequency of the waveform`timewindow`

is the time window to view the waveform, i.e. the time window of the proposed simulation`dt`

is the time step to view waveform, i.e. the time step of the proposed simulation

There is an optional command line argument:

`-fft`

to plot the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the waveform

### Definitions¶

Definitions of the built-in waveforms and example plots are shown using the parameters: amplitude of one, frequency of 1GHz, time window of 6ns, and a time step of 1.926ps.

#### gaussian¶

A Gaussian waveform.

where \(\zeta = 2\pi^2f^2\), \(\chi=\frac{1}{f}\) and \(f\) is the frequency.

#### gaussiandot¶

First derivative of a Gaussian waveform.

where \(\zeta = 2\pi^2f^2\), \(\chi=\frac{1}{f}\) and \(f\) is the frequency.

#### gaussiandotnorm¶

Normalised first derivative of a Gaussian waveform.

where \(\zeta = 2\pi^2f^2\), \(\chi=\frac{1}{f}\) and \(f\) is the frequency.

#### gaussiandotdot¶

Second derivative of a Gaussian waveform.

where \(\zeta = \pi^2f^2\), \(\chi=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{f}\) and \(f\) is the frequency.

#### gaussiandotdotnorm¶

Normalised second derivative of a Gaussian waveform.

where \(\zeta = \pi^2f^2\), \(\chi=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{f}\) and \(f\) is the frequency.

#### ricker¶

A Ricker (or Mexican Hat) waveform which is the negative, normalised second derivative of a Gaussian waveform.

where \(\zeta = \pi^2f^2\), \(\chi=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{f}\) and \(f\) is the frequency.

#### sine¶

A single cycle of a sine waveform.

and

\(f\) is the frequency

#### contsine¶

A continuous sine waveform. In order to avoid introducing noise into the calculation the amplitude of the waveform is modulated for the first cycle of the sine wave (ramp excitation).

and

where \(R_c\) is set to \(0.25\) and \(f\) is the frequency.